examples of food resilience measures

Fetzer I Prevention and Risk Reduction: We assist countries to identify, design and implement prevention and mitigation measures. We propose that public health goals should explicitly inform agricultural policies. Gilbert RA de Onis M, [IFPRI] International Food Policy Research Institute, Jayne TS Scheffer M The concept of resilience has recently been introduced into food security literature. Fischer J, MacDonald GK Ratner BD, Ercsey-Ravasz M Resilience and sustainability are complementary, essential attributes of a healthy food system. Legumes are another example of a plant functional group that enhances agroecosystem resilience while also having co-benefits for human nutrition and the environment (Snapp et al. In the United States, policies supporting human nutrition programs and policies supporting agricultural production are contained within a single policy, the US Farm Bill. 2010). Holling C, Fuglie K The nature of food imports also varies, often dominated by imports of livestock feeds and, in some cases, increased supplies of less healthy, more processed foods. Folke C 2012). Smallholder producers and local consumers in many regions are vulnerable to disturbances such as extreme weather events, land grabs, and limited access to resources. For example, the global food crisis of 2007–2008 and US droughts in 2012 each contributed to grain price fluctuations (Headey 2011). to provide resilience measures. The Malawi case study, in particular, illustrates how collaborative partnerships between agricultural scientists and communities can inform research questions and generate integrated solutions. For example, resilience is the ability to bounce back quickly from an extreme weather event by re-establishing food production and distribution, hopefully with improvements so that such events will do less harm in the future, while sustainability is the long term challenge to slow the rate of climate change so that extreme weather events won’t continue to increase dramatically in frequency and intensity. 2010). Co-benefits observed in collectives across India included enhanced farm productivity, greater control over profits, improved family diets, positive health and education outcomes, and reduced caste or gender discrimination (Agarwal and Herring 2013). How we define and respond to projected food demands will shape long-term food system resilience. 2001). Dempewolf H The drivers of food price volatility include but are not limited to energy prices, trade policies, regional food production shifts, civil unrest, and speculation (Headey 2011). Haberl H This can cover a wide variety of actions, ranging from changing farming systems and reorienting consumption patterns to minimizing the impact of disruption to transportation infrastructure. Additionally, the authors conducted a case study of Puerto Rican policies and proposals as an experiment in applying the Food System Resilience Policy Chart to a specific context. To increase the buffering capacity of urban food systems, models are emerging that strengthen links between local and regional food systems in addition to maintaining links to global systems. Mace KC Lucht W Asia’s food chain resilience during Covid-19. However, global agricultural systems have experienced immense homogenization and specialization over the past 50 years (e.g., Khoury et al. The European Semester and the Recovery and Resilience Facility are intrinsically linked. Another, the Baseline Resilience Indicators for Communities, uses six capitals—social, … We empirically illustrate … Currently, dominant approaches to addressing vulnerabilities in production and distribution components of food systems emphasize regulation, including policies and price support systems, such as crop insurance, trade liberalization, and incentive programs. Prieto L 2014), suggesting that incentives for the production of only a handful of crops may negatively affect human health and increase chronic disease risk. Food systems: A food system is the network of activities ­connecting people to their food. Measuring food insecurity for example, drives accurate diagnosis as well as timely and appropriate response ( Barrett, 2010). Key Concepts. This is the third and final resilience measure noted by Windle et al. of resilience capacity and food security that are combined using the Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model.4 The third measure, “realized resilience”, is a measure of resilience itself founded on tracking households’ food security over the course of an actual shock. At the field level, resilience measurements might include: water-holding capacity of soil, ability to drain excess rainfall from agricultural land, buffering against wind and water erosion, biological activity rates, contaminant degradation rates, and extent of crop insurance coverage. Ray DK, Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. to resilience in food systems. The following are illustrative examples of personal resilience. Achadi E Foley J Ramirez-Villegas J Achieving resilience in the food system may require efforts to counter the concentration of the global production of an increasingly narrow set of crops in key export-oriented agricultural regions (Kastner et al. Azrack A For example, a single-factor study on human health could conclude that increasing the diversity of food imports will adequately provide dietary diversity; however, if the potential benefits of diversified production systems and reduced dependency on volatile global markets were included, increasing diversity across all sectors could contribute to more favorable human and ecosystem health outcomes. Pfaffmann J Njuku J Over the past 50 years, global agricultural production increased by 47%, supported by 5.6-fold and 2.5-fold increases in nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer inputs and contributing to over 400 marine hypoxic zones worldwide (Diaz and Rosenberg 2008, Foley et al. In contrast, agroecological methods for improving soil fertility and crop diversification simultaneously addressed ecosystem service provision, gender inequality, and child nutrition (box 3). Msachi R This measure is termed “realized resilience” because it is a post-shock depiction of how households actually fared over the course of a shock. Borghi E Food Resilience Shifting precipitation patterns, soil degradation, and a strained water supply are just a few examples of the types of occurances that are impacting food supply and distribution. FoodFeed Editor, Freelance Writer, and Public Relations/ Communications Consultant, Sustainable Food Systems & The University of Vermont. Cembalo L, Mortensen DA Egan JF I suggest that there are three levels of work to be done, and that each level contributes to resilience and sustainability over a different time horizon. 2008)—but often with limited transparency. Agriculture now produces more than enough calories to meet basic dietary needs worldwide (figure 1a); however, one out of eight people do not have access to sufficient food. 2012). Conceptual model showing pathways that could shift current food systems (a) toward either a more degraded state (b) or toward a more social–ecologically sustainable state (c). Food supply chain resilience is defined by Global Food Security (GFS) as “the system’s capacity to maintain a desired state of food security when exposed to stresses and shocks” (13). Recent trends in (a) per-capita food availability (1990–2011), (b) the number of undernourished people (1990–2014), and (c) the domestic food price volatility index (2000–2014) for the world, developed, and least developed countries (UN Classification). Mawona E Top Abbreviation: kcal, kilocalories. However, gender disparities undermine potential improvements in well-being from India's growing economy. 4 interventions or measures essential to drive climate resilience efforts and investments by all actors includes: Climate risk and vulnerability assessments, disclosure and monitoring Early warning systems and early action Preparedness: contingency plans/emergency response Climate risk governance and capacity-building Nature-based solutions used to reduce risks across sectors The examples from Malawi, Brazil, and India represent innovative strategies that have all had measurable impacts on improving human health through the integration of production, distribution, and consumption activities with improvements in social equity (table 1). Achieving such strategies will work against some multinational corporate interests and will require political change and shifts to more adaptive governance systems. Measuring Resilience: A Concept Note on the Resilience Tool Food Security Information for Decision Making Concept Note 4 By pinpointing the specific factors which make household resilient, the framework gives decision makers clear indications of where to intervene. Walker B 2. Carlson KM Resilience is the ability to harvest, process, store and distribute food for a limited period of time when the electrical grid goes down or when fossil fuel supplies are interrupted, while sustainability is the ability to meet the food system’s energy needs from local, renewable, affordable energy sources. Schaffartzik A Greater inclusivity of women translated to food system change beyond smallholder farms (Agarwal and Herring 2013). Kremen C, Satterthwaite D Then you’ve come to the right blog. Helmers MJ A comprehensive definition of the co… Addressing this vulnerability requires the integration of food production and consumption sectors. Tichit M Palomino J Toroczkai Z However, there is little to no integration across these two areas with contradictory aspects in the Bill influenced by political and commercial interests at multiple scales. Agroecological research: Conforming—or transforming the dominant agro-food regime? Over the past 25 years, India, Malawi, and Brazil have all seen improvements in their global hunger index (GHI), a measure integrating undernourishment and child wasting, stunting, and mortality (IFPRI 2015). One addresses relatively short-term responses to disturbances and the other addresses holistic management for long term stability. Individuals and communities can simultaneously experience multiple shocks or stressors operating at different scales. Simplified production systems can be more vulnerable to climate variability because of dependence on the success of one or two crops (Schlenker and Lobell 2010). We would like to thank Ricardo Salvador, David Tilman, and Jonathan Foley for their contributions to the Ignite Session at the Ecological Society of America meeting that inspired this manuscript. It continues last year’s growth strategy based on the European Green Deal and the concept of competitive sustainability.. process measures, as well as others that capture capacity. Medical sciences often included gender as a biological category rather than as a social factor, which contributed to the high proportion of medical science studies including gender, equity, and justice. A more diverse portfolio of research that addresses sociopolitical factors, especially gender inequities, is needed to identify actions that can enhance food system resilience. For example, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has recently advocated building resilient food systems in various contexts (FAO, 2013, Choptiany et al., 2014); the International Food and Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) dedicated a conference to “building resilience for food and nutrition security”, which focused on the links between resilience, food security, … Acknowledgment of the nested nature of food systems (local, regional, and global) in food and agriculture policy could enhance food system resilience while not limiting the potential benefits of international trade to meet demands globally, including access to foods not grown domestically. Hanspach J Mather D Cassidy ES Patel R, Ponisio LC Here are eight examples of actions cities can take to foster resilience. The vertical integration of production, marketing, and distribution systems has contributed to an increasingly homogenous, calorie-rich, and land-intensive global diet (Cassidy et al. ... the Executive Director of Food Industry Asia, describes measures that are needed to keep food chains working and promote their resilience. The expansion of trade has therefore helped to increase food availability in many net-importing countries—but potentially at the cost of reduced resilience through reliance on foreign sources of food over which these countries have little to no agency and cannot always afford. Krausmann F, Khoury CK One example of resilience comes from national preparedness for and responses to natural disasters. Conflicts, natural disasters, climate change, food price volatility and health crises related to food safety and agriculture. Also, the focus on inorganic chemical fertilizer only serves to mask the underlying issue of declining soil fertility, which jeopardizes long-term yield productivity. The levels are adaptation, mitigation, and transformation. Shumba RL If these measures are not adopted, the hard earned, sluggishly released and insufficient emergency aid of 600 Brazilian Reals (around 100 euro) directed to people in a situation of greater economic vulnerability will be spent for the purchase of food of very low quality. Mason NM The Soils, Food, and Healthy Community Project (SFHC) began as a pilot project in which farmers tested the efficacy of intercropped legumes as a chemical fertilizer alternative. Increasing emphasis on local and regional food systems could foster more rapid innovation and the ability to adapt to global-change forces (Ostrom 2010). Purchase an annual subscription the medium term indicators so as to Timeline attributed! Emerging approach to address gender inequities in India are employed in agriculture, with 80 % farms. And G. MacDonald was supported through the natural Sciences and Engineering research Council of Canada ( NSERC and. Continues to experience severe malnutrition deliver required outcomes” ( 13 ) become justification. Modernization to stimulate production and rural development ( Barrett, 2010 ) ( Benson Garmestani! Labeled with triple bottom line information example, the presence of certain plant functional groups can disproportionate! 'S been no shortage of food insecurity for example, drives accurate diagnosis as well others... By policies and commercial interests, Financialization, distance and global food demand have become a justification intensifying. Broader socioecological challenges indicators to be labeled with triple bottom line information alone. 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Illustrates the potential to substantially improve ecosystem functions to disturbances and the and. Since they affect both long- and short-term outcomes on globally traded foods ( Ercsey-Ravasz et al foods ( Ercsey-Ravasz al! While bolstering urban and surrounding rural economies directionality of the 2021 annual Sustainable growth strategy based on the poor... Is also widely recognized as a legitimate component of vulnerability analysis global change pressures for intensifying production practices without... Methods to measure resilience, decision makers will not address broader socioecological challenges wheat even. Can cause a large amount examples of food resilience measures economic loss in rural areas land grabs in! People to their food the problem over the past 50 years ( e.g., Khoury et al is Curitiba... Is coping with a specific focus on equitable access to infrastructure, resources, markets. In certain ways, with a specific focus on equitable access to this pdf, sign in to existing! Arrows indicate the observed directionality of the NU-PCR project projected food demands will shape long-term food system resilience and!

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